Glossary of social terms


Business ethics

Taking account of the moral aspect in business, i.e. applying solutions that combine moral requirements with the strategic interests of a firm. Business ethics determines ethical standards of behaviour, norms and values as well as conduct in a business.


Code of ethics

A set of rules that regulate moral life. A code of ethics in business indicates specific ‘behaviours’ of an organization, in addition to general guidelines concerning reliability and integrity required in business and actions that are conducive to social development and not contradictory to moral standards and collective customs.

Corporate community involvement

Involvement of a firm in social issues and participating in solutions of social problems. This concept is narrower than corporate social responsibility and it refers to different activities of a company in a community. It includes various forms of involvement, such as financial support, material assistance and voluntary work of employees. Community involvement makes a firm more reliable in the eyes of the general public and builds a positive image.

Corporate social responsibility

The strategy that provides for a firm to take account voluntarily of social interests while trying to achieve its economic aims, taking decisions and actions. CSR includes the consideration for ethical rules, rights of employees and human rights as well as the social and natural environment. It is assumed that the corporate social responsibility should be an integral part of the business policy, together with its economic objectives.


– Corporate Social Responsibility. The strategy that provides for a firm to take account voluntarily of social interests while trying to achieve its economic aims, taking decisions and actions. CSR includes the consideration for ethical rules, rights of employees and human rights as well as the social and natural environment. It is assumed that the corporate social responsibility should be an integral part of the business policy, together with its economic objectives.



A form of an agreement by which a donor undertakes to provide free-of-charge performance with its assets. A donation may be granted by individuals or corporations. The subject matter of the donation may include real properties, movables, money as well as rights or may involve free provision of services.


Employee volunteering

Activities organised and/or supported by the employer through which employees address various community needs. Employee volunteers use their skills and abilities to perform various types of work, while the employer creates conditions enabling them to undertake such initiatives and provides financial and/or organisational support.


ESG (Environmental, Social, Corporate Governance). Acronym denoting the key factors in rating and assessing non-financial performance of businesses, sovereign states and other organisations. They comprise three areas of concern: the environment, social responsibility and corporate governance.


Global Compact

The world’s largest initiative of the Secretary General of the United Nations for corporate responsibility and sustainable development. The Polish Global Compact Local Network is coordinated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Project Office. Since it was launched in 2000, over 9,000 members from 135 countries have joined the initiative. Global Compact calls on companies to embrace in their activities ten principles in the areas of: human rights, labor rights, environmental protection, counteracting corruption and promoting corporate social responsibility.


The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is an independent institution with its seat in the Netherlands that develops and promotes so-called Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. GRI Guidelines are applied all over the world. They may be used by all companies that are ready to submit comprehensive reports on their economic, environmental and social activity. Since 2006, the third version of the GRI Guidelines applies, so-called G3. The organization has introduced a three-level system of applications: from the highest that includes the largest scope of revealed information, i.e. about 80 reporting indexes (A, A+), to the smallest, with less than 40 indexes (C, C+). A plus before each level means the external verification of the report by an independent certifying authority.


Human capital

Employees of a firm who contribute to its operation and development and have specific knowledge, skills and talents.


ISO 26000

Standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to comprehensively define social responsibility by identifying seven core subjects: organisational governance, human rights, labour practices, the environment, fair operating practices, consumer issues, as well as community involvement and development.


Local community

The group of people who live in the area and are connected by social bonds, common tradition and culture. A local community is formed by inhabitants of villages, towns, cities or municipalities.



A set of fixed aims and targets of a firm. It contains values that are upheld by the management board and are the basis for determining its actions. The mission determines the identity of a firm and its organizational culture.


Non-governmental organization (NGO)

A voluntary organization that operates independently of state or political structures and whose operation is not profit oriented. It works for social issues and development. Its operation is based mostly on voluntary work.


Organizational culture

Organizational culture A set of standards, values, forms of behaviour, attitudes, premises and symbols that determine the mode of thinking and acting in a company and define standards of communication and conduct.



– renewable energy sources.
Sources of energy that do not become depleted in the long term because they are naturally replenished on a human timescale, including mainly: sunlight, wind and water.



Sustainable Development Goals - Include 17 goals, 169 targets and 304 indicators to achieve by 2030, to ensure better, healthier and safer living conditions, in the social, environmental and economic spheres. In 2015, those goals replaced the previous eight millennium goals.

Social dialogue

The exchange of information and presentation of positions concerning social problems and issues between parties that may be public institutions, entrepreneurs or NGOs. It is a form of representing the interests of parties. The source of success is reliable information exchanged between the parties and cooperation.

Social programme

Planned actions aimed at solving or counteracting a specific social problem. They may be implemented jointly or independently by public institutions, businesses or social organizations.

Social report

A report issued by a firm that presents its whole strategy and social policy. It takes account of economic, social and ecological aspects of its operations.


Joint obligations of two parties – a sponsor and a sponsoree. A sponsor provides funds, material assistance or services to the sponsoree in return for promotion. Sponsoring is a planned and conscious act aimed at creating a positive image of a firm. It is often a part of the long-term marketing strategy of a business.


A person or entity interested in the operation of a firm and incurring various types of risks related to its business or the persons or entities that are affected by a firm through its activities. Unlike shareholders, who are primarily interested in the profits of the company, stakeholders include a much wider group, e.g. employees, customers, creditors, suppliers, government administration and, in a wider context, local communities, the natural environment and public opinion. The term was first introduced by the Stanford Research Institute in 1963.

Sustainable development

The path of social and economic development that is in harmony with the natural environment. The idea of sustainability provides for the skilful use of resources (social, human and natural), so that they can be used in the future.



The Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures. Organisation established in December 2015 to develop a set of voluntary climate-related financial risk disclosures. They may be used by companies to provide information on the risks and opportunities related to climate change to investors and other stakeholders.

TRI*M Index

TRI*M Index is a synthetic measure of customer satisfaction and loyalty, as well as a key tool in the licensed Kantar methodology.

In mathematical terms, the TRI*M Index represents the weighted average of answers to four questions, selected by Kantar over 20 years ago in the course of evaluation studies. Ever since, they have been consistently used in customer satisfaction surveys across a number of markets, giving Kantar one of the largest benchmark databases.

The TRI*M Index includes the following four questions:

  • overall rating – which reflects a customer’s overall opinion on the company’s services and products on a rational level,

  • probability of recommendation – which shows whether a customer is so satisfied they would recommend the company’s products and services to other people on their own initiative,

  • probability of repeat purchase – a tool to anticipate future behaviours related to repeat purchase of the company’s services,

  • competitive advantage – which reflects the company’s competitive environment and measures if there are market barriers to switching and how strong they are.